Recommendations for Reform Even though the pace of reform is relatively modest in addressing the scale of mass incarceration and the enduring racial and ethnic disparities, reforms being pursued in the states are encouraging. The system of incarceration in Massachusetts is somewhat unique in that this state uses county-level houses of corrections to hold some inmates who have been convicted of felonies and sentenced up to 2.
Reassessing and redirecting research on race and sentencing. Other categories of racial minorities—those convicted of drug offenses, those who victimize whites, those who accumulate more serious prior criminal records, or those who refuse to plead guilty or are unable to secure pretrial release—also may be singled out for more punitive treatment.
Massachusetts General Law Chapter B is a comprehensive anti-discrimination bill that protects against discrimination based on race, color, religion, nationality, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, genetic information, ancestry, parental status, marital status, veteran status, membership in the armed services, and disability.
We attempt to fill those gaps by 1 using both data on prison admission as well as in-stock prison populations, 2 presenting more recent racially and ethnically disaggregated arrest and incarceration data from Pennsylvania for —, and 3 including Hispanic offenders in our racial and ethnic disproportionality comparisons.
Socioeconomic inequality does lead people of color to disproportionately use and sell drugs outdoors, where they are more readily apprehended by police.
Race, ethnicity, threat, and the designation of career offenders. An American dilemma continues.
Effects of individual and contextual characteristics on preadjudication detention of juvenile delinquents. Note that individuals with multiple arrests and summonses are counted multiple times in this calculation. For this reason, estimates in this report do not include inmates in houses of corrections.
Racial disparities in official assessments of juvenile offenders: When looking at juvenile crime, it is not necessarily the case that youth of color have a greater tendency to engage in delinquency, but that the uneven playing field from the start, a part of larger American society, creates inequalities which are related to who goes on to commit crime and who is equipped to desist from crime.
National Prisoner Statistics, These factors might include forms of racial bias related to perceived racial threat. Once pulled over, people of color are more likely than whites to be searched, and blacks are more likely than whites to be arrested.
About seventy per cent of all prisoners in the South are black; this, however, is in part explained by the fact that accused Negroes are still easily convicted and get long sentences, while whites still continue to escape the penalty of many crimes even among themselves.
Other research finds that assumptions by key decision makers in the justice system influence outcomes in a biased manner. MAPC has taken such a strong interest in equity not only out of concern for communities marginalized by the legacy of systemic oppression.
Like most states, New Jersey experienced a steady rise in incarceration from the s through the s. Finally, criminal justice policies exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities by imposing collateral consequences on those with criminal records and by diverting public spending away from preventative measures.
The more serious the crime e. The United States has twice submitted periodic reports to the Committee and has appeared twice in Geneva before the Committee.RACIAL DISPROPORTIONALITY OF U.S.
PRISON POPULATIONS REVISITED ALFRED BLUMSTEIN* INTRODUCTION Over the past two decades, the growth in prison populations in the United States has been astonishing.
The trend in prison populations over the fifty year period from the mids to the mids (shown in Figure 1) had been impressively stable. The nation's incarceration rate averaged. Analyzing Stops, Citations, and Searches in Washington and Beyond Alfred Blumstein, Racial Disproportionality of U.S.
Prison Populations Revisited, 64 U.
COLO. L. REV. percent of the U.S. population, or about thirty-eight million people. In an average year, over forty. the U.S.
population but two-fifths of the prison population. The disparities are even more dramatic for males, and particularly for males in their twenties and thirties.
Like an avalanche, racial disparity grows cumulatively as people traverse the criminal justice system. This report identifies four key features of the criminal justice system that produce racially unequal outcomes and showcases initiatives to abate these sources of inequity in adult and juvenile justice systems around the country.
Racial disproportionality of U.S. prison populations revisited. University of Colorado Law Review 64(3): Subsequent studies have replicated this work with more recent data and found even higher amounts of unexplained disparities, particularly in the category of drug arrests.
Annotated Bibliography: Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System “Racial Disproportionality of US Prison Populations Revisited.” differences at arrest accounted for 94% of the racial disproportionality in prison.
However, the striking new issue.Download